A patient who is dying of cancer tells the nurse that he is in extreme pain. Which of the following principles should the nurse adhere to when managing pain in a dying patient? Select all that apply.
A. Determine if the patient has developed drug tolerance
D. Discuss increasing the dose of pain medication with the physician
E. Monitor for side effects of increasing opioid use
Cancer pain is common among dying patients; some healthcare providers do not like to administer high doses of pain medications because they fear addiction or side effects. A patient with cancer may develop medication tolerance and may need more pain medication as part of palliative care if he is dying.