A nurse is caring for a client who has developed diabetic ketoacidosis. The client has a breathing pattern in which he takes rapid and very deep breaths with large tidal volumes. Which of the following best describes this type of breathing?


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- Kussmaul respiration

- Cheyne-Stokes respirations

- Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

- Biot's respiration


Kussmaul respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing that is often associated with a condition of metabolic acidosis, such as with diabetic ketoacidosis. Kussmaul respirations are characterized by a rapid breathing rate in which the patient takes very deep breaths. The patient may breathe in this manner if his body feels a need for more air and is desperately trying to take in more oxygen by taking very deep breaths. This respiratory pattern is a late sign and it develops with severe acidosis.

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