A patient is being seen for control of his weight and management of heart disease. The patient leads a sedentary lifestyle and consumes a high fat, energy dense diet. Which best describes how these lifestyle factors contribute to heart disease?

 

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Correct

- Lifestyle factors cause changes in the cardiovascular system that may make a patient more susceptible to heart disease

- Lifestyle factors lead to habitual behavior that cannot be managed once heart disease has developed

- Lifestyle factors may increase the risk of infection, which puts the body in an immunocompromised state

- Lifestyle factors cause genetic abnormalities that pass the risk of heart disease on to children

Rationale

"Lifestyle factors cause changes in the cardiovascular system that may make a patient more susceptible to heart disease" is correct. A patient who is at risk of heart disease may have lifestyle factors in place that further increase the chances of developing the condition, like a sedentary lifestyle, smoking and eating a high fat diet. Lifestyle factors contribute to heart disease because they alter the patient's overall level of health, which makes him more susceptible to disease.
"Lifestyle factors lead to habitual behavior that cannot be managed once heart disease has developed" is incorrect. Habits can be changed. Switching to a diet low in sodium and saturated fats and high in fruits and vegetables will lower blood pressure and cholesterol and can lower the patient's risk of heart disease. Adding an exercise routine can improve circulation and cardiovascular health.
"Lifestyle factors may increase the risk of infection, which puts the body in an immunocompromised state" is incorrect. Lifestyle factors described above do not put the body in an immunocompromised state, although they do contribute to an overall level of poor health.
"Lifestyle factors cause genetic abnormalities that pass the risk of heart disease on to children" is incorrect because there is no link between genetics and lifestyle factors.

References:
Heart Disease Prevention. (2018, March 22). Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/howtopreventheartdisease.html

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