50 Most Commonly Prescribed Medications

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Medication List

Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
acetaminophen
Trade Name
Tylenol
Indications

pain, fever

Actions
inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins which play a role in transmission of pain signals and fever
response
Therapeutic Class
antipyretic, non-opioid analgesic
Pharmacologic Class

Acyclovir (Zovirax) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Acyclovir (Zovirax) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
acyclovir
Trade Name
Zovirax
Indications

genital herpes, herpes zoster, chicken pox

Actions
interferes with viral DNA synthesis
Therapeutic Class
antiviral
Pharmacologic Class
purine analogues

Albuterol (Proventil) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Albuterol (Proventil) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
albuterol
Trade Name
Proventil
Indications

bronchodilator used to prevent airway obstruction in asthma and COPD

Actions
binds to Beta2 adrenergic receptors in the airway leading to relaxation of the smooth muscles in the
airways
Therapeutic Class
bronchodilator
Pharmacologic Class
adrenergic

Alendronate (Fosamax) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Alendronate (Fosamax) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
alendronate
Trade Name
Fosamax
Indications

osteoporosis (aging, menopause, corticosteroid induced)

Actions
inhibits osteoclast activity leading to inhibition of resorption of bone
Therapeutic Class
bone resorption inhibitor
Pharmacologic Class
bisphosphnates

Alprazolam (Xanax) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Alprazolam (Xanax) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
Alprazolam
Trade Name
Xanax
Indications

anxiety, panic disorder, manage symptoms of PMS, insomnia, mania, psychosis

Actions
works in CNS to produce anxiolytic effect causing CNS depression.
Therapeutic Class
antianxiety agent
Pharmacologic Class
benzodiazepine

Alteplase (t-PA) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Alteplase (t-PA) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
alteplase
Trade Name
t-PA
Indications

MI, acute ischemic stroke, occluded central lines

Actions
converts plasminogen to plasmin which degrades the fibrin found in clots
Therapeutic Class
thrombolytics
Pharmacologic Class
plasminogen activators

Amiodarone (Cordarone) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Generic Name
Amiodarone
Trade Name
Cordarone
Indications

a-fib, ventricular arrhythmias, SVT, ACLS protocol for v-fib and v-tach

Actions
prolongs phase 3 of the action potential, makes the heart more tolerant to arrythmias, inhibits
adrenergic stimulation, slows rate, decreases peripheral vascular resistance causing vasodilation
Therapeutic Class
antiarrhythmic class III, potassium channel blocker
Pharmacologic Class
none

Amitryptiline (Elavil) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Amitryptiline (Elavil) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
Amitryptiline
Trade Name
Elavil
Indications

depression, anxiety, insomnia, parkinsons

Actions
increases effect of serotonin and norepinephrine in the CNS, exhibits anticholinergic effects
Therapeutic Class
antidepressant
Pharmacologic Class
tricyclic antidepressant

Amlodipine (Norvasc) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Amlodipine (Norvasc) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
Amlodipine
Trade Name
Norvasc
Indications

hypertension, angina

Actions
blocks transport of calcium into muscle cells inhibiting excitation and contraction
Therapeutic Class
antihypertensive
Pharmacologic Class
Ca channel blocker

Amoxicillin (Moxatag) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Amoxicillin (Moxatag) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
amoxicillin
Trade Name
Moxatag
Indications

skin infections, respiratory infections, sinusitis, endocarditis prophylaxis, lyme disease

Actions
Inhibits synthesis of bacterial cell wall leading to cell death.
Therapeutic Class
anti-infectives, antiulcer agent
Pharmacologic Class
aminopenicillins

Ampicillin (Principen) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Ampicillin (Principen) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
ampicillin
Trade Name
Principen
Indications

skin infections, soft tissue infections, otitis media, sinusitis, respiratory infections, GU infections,
meningitis, septicemia

Actions
bactericidal, broader spectrum than penicillin, binds to cell wall leading to bacterial cell death
Therapeutic Class
anti-infective
Pharmacologic Class
aminopenicillin

Aspart, lispro, glulisine (Novolog, humalog, apidra )

Generic Name
Aspart, lispro, glulisine
Trade Name
Novolog, humalog, apidra
Indications
  • Hyperglycemia with diabetes type 1 and 2, diabetic ketoacidosis
Actions
Stimulates uptake of glucose into muscle and fat cells, inhibits production of glucose in the liver, prevents breakdown of fat and protein

Route Onset Peak Duration
Aspart 10-20 min 1-3 hr 3-5 hr
Glulisine 15 min 1 hr 2-4 hr
Lispro 15 min 1-1.5 hr 3-4 hr
Therapeutic Class
Antidiabetics, hormones
Pharmacologic Class
Pancreatics

Aspart, lispro, glulisine (novolog, humalog, apidra) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Aspart, lispro, glulisine (novolog, humalog, apidra) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
aspart, lispro, glulisine
Trade Name
novolog, humalog, apidra
Indications

hyperglycemia with diabetes type 1 and 2, diabetic ketoacidosis

Actions
stimulates uptake of glucose into muscle and fat cells, inhibits production of glucose in the liver,
prevents breakdown of fat and protein
Therapeutic Class
antidiabetics, hormones
Pharmacologic Class
pancreatics

Aspart, Lispro, Glulisine Insulin (rapid acting): Novolog, Humalog, Apidra (antidiabetics, hormones)

Aspart, Lispro, Glulisine Insulin (rapid acting): Novolog, Humalog, Apidra (antidiabetics, hormones)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Aspirin (Bayer Aspirin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Aspirin (Bayer Aspirin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
aspirin
Trade Name
Bayer Aspirin
Indications

rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ischemic stroke and MI prophylaxis

Actions
inhibits the production of prostaglandins which leads to a reduction of fever and inflammation,
decreases platelet aggregation leading to a decrease in ischemic diseases
Therapeutic Class
antipyretics, non-opioid analgesics
Pharmacologic Class
salicylates

Atenolol (Tenormin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Atenolol (Tenormin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
atenolol
Trade Name
Tenormin
Indications

hypertension, angina, prevention of MI

Actions
blocks the stimulation of beta1 receptors in the SNS with minimal effect on beta2 receptors
Therapeutic Class
antianginal, antihypertensive
Pharmacologic Class
beta blocker

Atenolol | Beta Blocker

Atorvastatin (Lipitor)

Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
Generic Name
Atorvastatin
Trade Name
Lipitor
Indications
  • Management of high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia)
  • Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease
Actions
Lowers total cholesterol as well as LDL while slightly increasing HDL. Inhibits HMG-CoA reductase which plays a role in the liver in cholesterol formation
Therapeutic Class
Lipid-lowering agent
Pharmacologic Class
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor

Atropine (Atro-pen) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Atropine (Atro-pen) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
atropine
Trade Name
Atro-pen
Indications

decreases oral and respiratory secretions, treats sinus bradycardia and heart block, treatment of
bronchospasm

Actions
Atropine is an anticholinergic which means that it inhibits the effects of the parasympathetic nervous
system, specifically acetylcholine. This inhibition causes increase in HR, bronchodilation, decreased GI
and respiratory secretions.
Therapeutic Class
antiarrhythmic
Pharmacologic Class
anticholinergic, antimuscarinic

Azithromycin (Zithromax) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Azithromycin (Zithromax) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
azithromycin
Trade Name
Zithromax
Indications

URI, chronic bronchitis, lower respiratory infections, otitis media, skin infections, various STIs,
prevention of bacterial endocarditis, treatment of cystic fibrosis

Actions
inhibits bacterial protein synthesis
Therapeutic Class
agents for atypical mycobacterium, anti-infectives
Pharmacologic Class
Macrolide

Benzotropine (Cogentin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Benzotropine (Cogentin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
benzotropine
Trade Name
Cogentin
Indications

treatment for Parkinson’s disease

Actions
exhibits anticholinergic properties (blocks acetylcholine) in the CNS to reduce rigidity and tremors
Therapeutic Class
Antiparkinson agent
Pharmacologic Class
Anticholinergic

Benztropine (Cogentin)

Benztropine  (Cogentin)
Generic Name
Benztropine
Trade Name
Cogentin
Indications

Treatment for Parkinson’s disease

Actions
Anticholinergic properties in the CNS to reduce rigidity and tremors
Therapeutic Class
Antiparkinson agent
Pharmacologic Class
Anticholinergic

Beta Blockers

Generic Name
atenolol
Trade Name
Tenormin
Indications

hypertension, angina, prevention of MI

Actions
blocks the stimulation of beta1 receptors in the SNS with minimal effect on beta2 receptors
Therapeutic Class
antianginal, antihypertensive
Pharmacologic Class
beta blocker

Bisacodyl (Dulcolax) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Bisacodyl (Dulcolax) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
bisacodyl
Trade Name
Dulcolax
Indications

treatment of constipation, bowel regimen

Actions
stimulates enteric nerves to cause peristalsis which leads to fluid accumulation in the colon
Therapeutic Class
axatives
Pharmacologic Class
stimulant laxatives

Bismuth Subsalicylate (Kaopectate, Pepto-Bismol) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Bismuth Subsalicylate (Kaopectate, Pepto-Bismol) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
bismuth subsalicylate
Trade Name
Kaopectate, Pepto-Bismol
Indications

diarrhea, heartburn, indigestion, H. pylori associated ulcer

Actions
Stimulates the absorption of fluids and electrolytes in the intestinal wall, reduction in hypermotility of
the stomach, and binds to toxins.
Therapeutic Class
antidiarrheal, antiulcer
Pharmacologic Class
adsorbant

Bupropion (Wellbutrin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Bupropion (Wellbutrin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
bupropion
Trade Name
Wellbutrin
Indications

depression, smoking cessation, treat ADHD in adults

Actions
not well understood, ↑ dopamenergic and noradrenergic transmission via reuptake
Therapeutic Class
Antidepressants, smoking deterrents
Pharmacologic Class
aminoketones

Buspirone (Buspar) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Buspirone (Buspar) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
buspirone
Trade Name
Buspar
Indications

management of anxiety

Actions
relieves anxiety by binding to dopamine and serotonin receptors
Therapeutic Class
Antidepressants, smoking deterrents
Pharmacologic Class
aminoketones

Butorphanol (Stadol) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Butorphanol (Stadol) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
butorphano
Trade Name
Stadol
Indications

moderate to severe pain, labor pain, sedation

Actions
alters perception and response to pain by biding to opiate receptors in CNS
Therapeutic Class
Opioid Analgesic
Pharmacologic Class
opioid agonists/antagonists

Calcium carbonate (Tums / Rolaids) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Calcium carbonate  (Tums / Rolaids) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
calcium carbonate
Trade Name
Tums / Rolaids
Indications

treatment of hypocalcemia, prevention of post menopausal osteoporosis, treatment of hyperkalemia
and hypermagnesaemia, used as antacid

Actions
calcium is essential for nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems, helps maintain cell membranes, aids in
transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction, aids in blood formation and coagulation
Therapeutic Class
mineral and electrolyte replacements/supplements
Pharmacologic Class
antacids

Captopril (Capoten) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Captopril  (Capoten) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
captopril
Trade Name
Capoten
Indications

hypertension, management of CHF, decrease progression of DM neuropathy

Actions
block conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, increases renin levels and decreases aldosterone
leading to vasodilation
Therapeutic Class
antihypertensives
Pharmacologic Class
ACE Inhibitor

Carafate (Sucralfate)

Carbamazepine (Tegretol) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Carbamazepine (Tegretol) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
carbamazepine
Trade Name
Tegretol
Indications

seizures, DM neuropathy, pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia

Actions
affects Na channels in neurons leading to decreased synaptic transmission
Therapeutic Class
Anticonvulsant
Pharmacologic Class
none

Carbidopa/levodopa (Sinemet) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Carbidopa/levodopa (Sinemet) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
carbidopa/levodopa
Trade Name
Sinemet
Indications

Parkinson’s disease

Actions
levodopa is converted to dopamine and works as a neurotransmitter, carbidopa prevents the
destruction of levodopa allowing it to cross the blood brain barrier
Therapeutic Class
Antiparkinson agent
Pharmacologic Class
Dopamine Agonist

Cefaclor (Ceclor) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Cefaclor (Ceclor) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
cefaclor
Trade Name
Ceclor
Indications

treatment of respiratory tract infections, skin infections, otitis media

Actions
bacteriacidal, binds to bacterial cell wall causing cell death
Therapeutic Class
anti-infectives
Pharmacologic Class
Cephalosporin 2nd generations

Cefdinir (Omnicef) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Cefdinir (Omnicef) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
cefdinir
Trade Name
Omnicef
Indications

treatment of skin infections, otitis media

Actions
bactericidal, binds to bacterial cell wall causing cell death
Therapeutic Class
anti-infectives
Pharmacologic Class
Cephalosporin 2nd generations

Celecoxib (Celebrex) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Celecoxib (Celebrex) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
celecoxib
Trade Name
Celebrex
Indications

osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain

Actions
decreases pain and inflammation by inhibiting synthesis of prostaglandins
Therapeutic Class
antirrheumatics/NSAID
Pharmacologic Class
none

Cephalexin (Keflex) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Cephalexin (Keflex) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
cephalexin
Trade Name
Keflex
Indications

skin infections, pneumonia, UTI, otitis media

Actions
bactericidal: binds to bacterial cell wall leading to cell death
Therapeutic Class
anti-infectives
Pharmacologic Class
Cephalosporin 1st generations

Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
chlorpromazine
Trade Name
Thorazine
Indications

second line treatment of schizophrenia and psychosis, nausea/vomiting, pre-op sedation, acute
intermittent porphyria, headache, bipolar

Actions
exhibits anticholinergic activity, alters effects of dopamine in CNS
Therapeutic Class
Antipsychotic, antiemetic
Pharmacologic Class
phenothiazines (dopamine D2 receptor antagonist)

Cimetidine (Tagamet) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Cimetidine (Tagamet) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
cimetidine
Trade Name
Tagamet
Indications

treatment of duodenal ulcers, GERD, heartburn, Zollinger Ellison syndrome, prevention of GI bleeding in
critical patients.

Actions
inhibits action of histamine leading to inhibition of gastric acid secretion
Therapeutic Class
antiulcer agent
Pharmacologic Class
Histamine H2 antagonist

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
ciprofloxacin
Trade Name
Cipro
Indications

urinary tract infections, gonorrhea, respiratory tract infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, skin and bone
infections, infectious diarrhea, abdominal infections

Actions
inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis
Therapeutic Class
anti-infectives
Pharmacologic Class
Fluoroquinolone

Clindamycin (Cleocin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Clindamycin (Cleocin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
clindamycin
Trade Name
Cleocin
Indications

skin infections, respiratory tract infections, septicemia, intra-abdominal infections, osteomyelitis

Actions
bacteriostatic: inhibits protein synthesis
Therapeutic Class
Anti-infectives
Pharmacologic Class
none

Clopidogrel (Plavix )

Clopidogrel  (Plavix )
Generic Name
Clopidogrel
Trade Name
Plavix
Indications
  • Atherosclerotic events
  • MI, CVA
  • PVD
  • Acute coronary syndrome
Actions
Inhibits platelet aggregation
Therapeutic Class
Antiplatelet agent
Pharmacologic Class
Platelet aggregation inhibitors

Codiene

Cortisone (Cortone)

Cortisone  (Cortone)
Generic Name
Cortisone
Trade Name
Cortone
Indications
  • Management of adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison’s Disease).
Actions
Replace cortisol in states of deficiency, suppress inflammation and normal immune response. The adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands excrete steroid hormones, including cortisol that play a role in increasing blood sugars, immune suppression, and metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates, as well as decreasing bone formation.
Therapeutic Class
Antiasthmatics, corticosteroids
Pharmacologic Class
Corticosteroids

Cyclosporine ( Cyclosporine)

Cyclosporine ( Cyclosporine)
Generic Name
Cyclosporine
Trade Name
Cyclosporine
Indications
  • Prevention of rejection in transplantation
  • Treatment of severe RA
  • Management of ulcerative colitis
Actions
Inhibits normal immune response
Therapeutic Class
Immunosuppresants, antirheumatics (DMARD)
Pharmacologic Class
Polypeptides (cyclic)

Dexamethasone (Decadron)

Dexamethasone (Decadron)
Generic Name
Dexamethasone
Trade Name
Decadron
Indications
  • Manage cerebral edema
  • Assess for Cushing’s Disease
Actions
Suppress inflammation and normal immune response. Used in inflammatory states to decrease inflammation.
Therapeutic Class
Antiasthmatics, corticosteroids
Pharmacologic Class
Corticosteroids

Diazepam (Valium)

Diazepam (Valium)
Generic Name
Diazepam
Trade Name
Valium
Indications
  • Anxiety
  • Pre-op sedation
  • Conscious sedation
  • Treatment of seizures
  • Insomnia
  • Management of alcohol withdrawal
Actions
Depresses the CNS
Therapeutic Class
Antianxiety agents, anticonvulsants, sedative/hypnotics, skeletal muscle relaxants (centrally acting)
Pharmacologic Class
Benzodiazepine

Digoxin (Lanoxin)

Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Generic Name
Digoxin
Trade Name
Lanoxin
Indications
  • CHF
  • A-fib
  • A-flutter
Actions
Positive inotropic effect (increases force of myocardial contraction), prolongs refractory period, ↓ conduction through SA and AV nodes. Essentially digoxin is given to increase cardiac output and slow the rate.
Therapeutic Class
Antiarrhythmic, inotropics
Pharmacologic Class
Digitalis glycosides

Dobutamine (Dobutrex) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Dobutamine (Dobutrex) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
dobutamine
Trade Name
Dobutrex
Indications

short term management of heart failure

Actions
Dobutamine has a positive inotropic effect (increases cardiac output) with very little effect on heart rate.
Stimulates Beta1 receptors in the heart.
Therapeutic Class
inotropic
Pharmacologic Class
beta-adrenergic agonist

Dopamine (Intropin )

Dopamine (Intropin )
Generic Name
Dopamine
Trade Name
Intropin
Indications
  • Used to improve blood pressure
  • Cardiac output
  • And urine output
Actions
Smaller doses result in renal vasodilation

Doses 2-10mcg/kg/min result in cardiac stimulation by acting on beta1 receptors

Doses >10mcg/kg/min stimulate alpha receptors leading to vasoconstriction (↑SVR)
Therapeutic Class
Inotropic, vasopressor
Pharmacologic Class
Adrenergic

Dopamine vs Dobutamine

Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Enalapril (Vasotec) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Enalapril (Vasotec) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
enalapril
Trade Name
Vasotec
Indications

hypertension, management of CHF

Actions
block conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, increases renin levels and decreases aldosterone
leading to vasodilation
Therapeutic Class
antihypertensives
Pharmacologic Class
ACE Inhibitor

Enoxaparin (Lovenox) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Enoxaparin (Lovenox) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
enoxaparin
Trade Name
Lovenox
Indications

prevention of VTE, DVT, and PE

Actions
prevents thrombus formation by potentiating the inhibitory effect of antithrombin on factor Xa and
thrombin. Enoxaparin is a low molecular weight heparin.
Therapeutic Class
anticoagulant
Pharmacologic Class
antithrombotic

Epoetin (Epogen)

Epoetin (Epogen)
Generic Name
Epoetin
Trade Name
Epogen
Indications

Anemia

Actions
Stimulates erythropoesis (production of RBCs)
Therapeutic Class
Antianemics
Pharmacologic Class
Hormones

Erythromycin (E-Mycin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Erythromycin (E-Mycin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
erythromycin
Trade Name
E-Mycin
Indications

useful in place of penicillin when patient cannot take penicillin, upper and lower respiratory tract
infections, otitis media, skin infections, pertussis, syphilis, rheumatic fever

Actions
Bacteriostatic: suppresses bacterial protein synthesis
Therapeutic Class
anti-infective
Pharmacologic Class
macrolide

Escitalopram (Lexapro) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Escitalopram (Lexapro) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
escitalopram
Trade Name
Lexapro
Indications

major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, PCD, PTSD, social phobia

Actions
Increases the extracellular levels of serotonin in the synaptic cleft by selectively inhibiting its reuptake
Therapeutic Class
Antidepressant
Pharmacologic Class
SSRI

Famotidine (Pepcid) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Famotidine (Pepcid) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
famotidine
Trade Name
Pepcid
Indications

short term treatment of active ulcer, GERD, treatment of heartburn, indigestion, management of
Zollinger Ellison syndrome, prevention of GI bleeding in critically ill patients, management of symptoms
associated with overuse of NSAIDs

Actions
blocks action of histamine located in gastric parietal cells, inhibits gastric acid secretion
Therapeutic Class
antiulcer agent
Pharmacologic Class
Histamine H2 antagonist

Fentanyl (Sublimaze) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Fentanyl (Sublimaze) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
fentany
Trade Name
Sublimaze
Indications

supplement to general anesthesia, continuous IV infusion for purpose of analgesia

Actions
binds to opiate receptors in CNS altering perception of pain, producing CNS depression
Therapeutic Class
Opioid Analgesic
Pharmacologic Class
opioid agonists

Fentynal

Ferrous sulfate (Feosol)

Generic Name
Ferrous sulfate
Trade Name
Feosol
Indications
  • Prevention and treatment of iron-deficiency anemia
Actions
Iron is essential for hemoglobin, myoglobin and enzymes, it is transported to organs where it becomes part of iron stores
Therapeutic Class
Antianemics
Pharmacologic Class
Iron supplements

Ferrous Sulfate: Feosol (antianemics)

Ferrous Sulfate: Feosol (antianemics)
Generic Name
Ferrous sulfate
Trade Name
Indications

Supplement to general anesthesia, continuous IV infusion for purpose of analgesia

Actions
Binds to opiate receptors in CNS altering perception of pain, producing CNS depression
Therapeutic Class
Antianemics
Pharmacologic Class
Iron supplements

Ferrous Sulfate: Feosol (antianemics)

Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Flagyl use in the ICU for treating UTIs and other infections

Fluoxetine (Prozac)

Generic Name
Fluoxetine
Trade Name
Prozac
Indications
  • Depressive disorder
  • PCD
  • Bulimia
  • Panic disorder
  • Bipolar
  • Anorexia
  • ADHD
  • DM neuropathy
  • Obesity
Actions
Inhibits reuptake of serotonin
Therapeutic Class
Antidepressant
Pharmacologic Class
SSRI

Fluoxetine (Prozac) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Fluoxetine (Prozac) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
fluoxetine
Trade Name
Prozac
Indications

depressive disorder, OCD, bulimia, panic disorder, bipolar, anorexia, ADHD, DM neuropathy, obesity

Actions
inhibits reuptake of serotonin allowing it to persist longer in the synaptic cleft
Therapeutic Class
Antidepressant
Pharmacologic Class
SSRI

Fluticasone (Flovent)

Fluticasone (Flovent)
Generic Name
Fluticasone
Trade Name
Flovent
Indications

Prophylactic asthma treatment

Actions
Locally acting anti-inflammatory
Therapeutic Class
Antiasthmatics, anti-inflammatory (steroid)
Pharmacologic Class
Coticosteroids, Inhalation

Fluticasone (Flovent) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Fluticasone (Flovent) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
Fluticasone
Trade Name
Flovent
Indications

prophylactic asthma treatment

Actions
locally acting anti-inflammatory
Therapeutic Class
antiasthmatics, anti-inflammatory (steroid)
Pharmacologic Class
Coticosteroids, Inhalation

Furosemide (Lasix) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Furosemide (Lasix) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
Furosemide
Trade Name
Lasix
Indications

edema, hypertension

Actions
prevents reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the kidneys, increase excretion of water, sodium,
chloride, magnesium, potassium
Therapeutic Class
diuretics
Pharmacologic Class
oop diuretics

Furosemide: Lasix (diuretics)

Furosemide: Lasix (diuretics)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Gabapentine (Neurontin)

Generic Name
Gabapentine
Trade Name
Neurontin
Indications
  • Seizures
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Neuropathic pain
  • Prevention of migraines
Actions
Exact method of action unknown, may play a role in stabilizing neural membranes
Therapeutic Class
Analgesic adjuncts, therapeutic, anticonvulsants, mood stabilizers
Pharmacologic Class
none

Gabapentine (Neurontin)

Gabapentine (Neurontin)
Generic Name
Gabapentine
Trade Name
Neurontin
Indications

Seizures, peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain, prevention of migraines

Actions
Exact method of action unknown, may play a role in stabilizing neural membranes
Therapeutic Class
Analgesic adjuncts, therapeutic, anticonvulsants, mood stabilizers
Pharmacologic Class
none

Gabapentine (Neurontin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Gabapentine (Neurontin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
gabapentine
Trade Name
Neurontin
Indications

seizures, peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain, prevention of migraines

Actions
exact method of action unknown, may play a role in stabilizing neural membranes
Therapeutic Class
analgesic adjuncts, therapeutic, anticonvulsants, mood stabilizers
Pharmacologic Class
none

Gentamicin

Generic Name
Gentamicin
Trade Name
Cidomycin
Indications

Treatment of gram negative infections when penicillin is ineffective

Actions
Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis
Therapeutic Class
Anti-infectives
Pharmacologic Class
Aminoglycoside

Gentamicin (Cidomycin)

Generic Name
Gabapentine
Trade Name
Neurontin
Indications
  • Seizures
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Neuropathic pain
  • Prevention of migraines
Actions
Exact method of action unknown
Therapeutic Class
Aadjuncts, therapeutic, anticonvulsants, mood stabilizers
Pharmacologic Class
none

Gentamicin (Cidomycin)

Gentamicin (Cidomycin)
Generic Name
Gentamicin
Trade Name
Cidomycin
Indications

Treatment of gram negative infections when penicillin is ineffective

Actions
Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis
Therapeutic Class
Anti-infectives
Pharmacologic Class
Aminoglycoside

Glipizide (Glucotrol)

Generic Name
Glipizide
Trade Name
Glucotrol
Indications

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Actions
Stimulates release of insulin from the beta cells in the pancreases and leads to increased sensitivity to insulin
Therapeutic Class
Anti-diabetic
Pharmacologic Class
Sulfonylureas

Glipizide (Glucotrol) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Glipizide (Glucotrol) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
glipizide
Trade Name
Glucotrol
Indications

type 2 diabetes mellitus

Actions
stimulates release of insulin from the beta cells in the pancreases and leads to increased sensitivity to
insulin
Therapeutic Class
anti-diabetic
Pharmacologic Class
sulfonylureas

Glucagon (GlucaGen)

Generic Name
Glucagon
Trade Name
GlucaGen
Indications
  • Severe hypoglycemia
  • Antidote for Beta Blockers and calcium channel blockers
Actions
Stimulates production of glucose, relaxes Gi tract,
Therapeutic Class
Hormones
Pharmacologic Class
Pancreatics

Glucagon (GlucaGen) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Glucagon (GlucaGen) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
glucagon
Trade Name
GlucaGen
Indications

severe hypoglycemia, antidote for beta blockers and calcium channel blockers

Actions
stimulates production of glucose from stores, relaxes GI tract
Therapeutic Class
hormones
Pharmacologic Class
pancreatics

Guaifenesin (Robitussin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Guaifenesin (Robitussin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
guaifenesin
Trade Name
Robitussin
Indications

Cough suppression, expectorant

Actions
Decreases viscosity of and mobilizes secretions
Therapeutic Class
allergy, cold and cough remedies, expectorant
Pharmacologic Class
none

Guaifenesin: Robitussin (allergy, cold and cough remedies, expectorant)

Guaifenesin: Robitussin (allergy, cold and cough remedies, expectorant)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Haloperidol: Haldol (Antipsychotic)

Haloperidol: Haldol (Antipsychotic)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Heparin – Insulin Confusion: Deadly results of medication errors in the ICU and Hospital setting

Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Heparin: Hep-Lock (anticoagulant)

Heparin: Hep-Lock (anticoagulant)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Hydralazine: Apresoline (anti-hypertensive)

Hydralazine: Apresoline (anti-hypertensive)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril)

Generic Name
Hydrochlorothiazide
Trade Name
HydroDiuril
Indications
  • Hypertension
  • CHF
  • Renal dysfunction
  • Cirrhosis
  • Glucocorticoid therapy
Actions
Increases sodium and water excretion produces arterial dilation
Therapeutic Class
Antihypertensives, diuretics
Pharmacologic Class
Thiazide diuretics

Hydrochlorothiazide – Diuretic use in hospitals and ICUs

Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
hydrochlorothiazide
Trade Name
HydroDiuril
Indications

Hypertension, CHF, renal dysfunction, cirrhosis, glucocorticoid therapy

Actions
Increases sodium and water excretion and produces arterial vasodilation
Therapeutic Class
antihypertensives, diuretics
Pharmacologic Class
thiazide diuretics

Hydrochlorothiazide: HydroDiuril (antihypertensives, diuretics)

Hydrochlorothiazide: HydroDiuril (antihypertensives, diuretics)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Hydrocodone-acetaminophen: Norco (opioid Analgesic, allergy, cold and cough remedies, antitussive)

Hydrocodone-acetaminophen: Norco (opioid Analgesic, allergy, cold and cough remedies, antitussive)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Hydrocodone/Acetaminophen (Norco) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Hydrocodone/Acetaminophen (Norco) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
hydrocodone/acetaminophen
Trade Name
Norco
Indications

management of moderate to severe pain

Actions
alters the perception and reaction to pain by binding to opiate receptors in the CNS, also suppresses the
cough reflex
Therapeutic Class
opioid Analgesic, allergy, cold and cough remedies, antitussive
Pharmacologic Class
opioid agonists, nonopioid analgesic combinations

Hydromorphone: Dilaudid (opioid Analgesic, allergy, cold and cough remedies, antitussive)

Hydromorphone: Dilaudid (opioid Analgesic, allergy, cold and cough remedies, antitussive)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Ibuprofen | NSAIDs uses and risks in hospitalized patients

Ibuprofen: Advil / Motrin (antipyretics, antirheumatics, nonopioid analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents)

Ibuprofen: Advil / Motrin (antipyretics, antirheumatics, nonopioid analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Immodium | anti diarrheal

Indomethacin: Indocin (antirheumatics, ductus arteriosus patency adjuncts (IV only), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents)

Indomethacin: Indocin (antirheumatics, ductus arteriosus patency adjuncts (IV only), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Insulin- short acting (Humulin R/Novolin R) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Insulin- short acting (Humulin R/Novolin R) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
regular
Trade Name
Humulin R/Novolin R
Indications

hyperglycemia with diabetes type 1 and 2, diabetic ketoacidosis

Actions
stimulates uptake of glucose into muscle and fat cells, inhibits production of glucose in the liver,
prevents breakdown of fat and protein
Therapeutic Class
antidiabetics, hormones
Pharmacologic Class
pancreatics

Isoniazide (INH) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Isoniazide (INH) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
isoniazide
Trade Name
INH
Indications

tuberculosis

Actions
Inhibits synthesis of mycobacterial cell wall
Therapeutic Class
Antitubercular
Pharmacologic Class
none

Ketorolac: Toradol (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, nonopioid analgesics)

Ketorolac: Toradol (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, nonopioid analgesics)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Lactulose: Kristalose (laxative)

Lactulose: Kristalose (laxative)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

lamotrigine (Lamictal) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

lamotrigine (Lamictal) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
lamotrigine
Trade Name
Lamictal
Indications

seizures r/t epilepsy, bipolar

Actions
Inhibits sodium transport in neurons
Therapeutic Class
anticonvulsant
Pharmacologic Class

Levetiracetam (Keppra) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Levetiracetam (Keppra) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
levetiracetam
Trade Name
Keppra
Indications

Seizures

Actions
decreases severity and incidence of seizures by inhibiting presynaptic calcium channels and reducing
neurotransmitter realease
Therapeutic Class
anticonvulsants
Pharmacologic Class
pyrrolidines

Levofloxacin (Levaquin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Levofloxacin (Levaquin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
levofloxacin
Trade Name
Levaquin
Indications

urinary tract infections, gonorrhea, respiratory tract infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, skin and bone infections

Actions
inhibits DNA synthesis in bacteria
Therapeutic Class
Anti-infective
Pharmacologic Class
fluoroquinolone

Levothyroxine (Levothroid) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Levothyroxine (Levothroid) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
levothyroxine
Trade Name
Levothroid
Indications

thyroid hormone replacement in hypothyroidism

Actions
replaces thyroid hormone, increasing metabolism, promotes gluconeogenesis, stimulates protein synthesis, restores normal hormone balance and suppresses thyroid cancer
Therapeutic Class
hormone
Pharmacologic Class
thyroid preparations

Lisinopril (Prinivil )

Generic Name
Lisinopril
Trade Name
Prinivil
Indications
  • Hypertension
  • Management of CHF
Actions
Block conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, increases renin levels and decreases aldosterone leading to vasodil
Therapeutic Class
Antihypertensives
Pharmacologic Class
ACE Inhibitor

Lisipnorpil (Prinivil) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Lisipnorpil (Prinivil) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
lisinopril
Trade Name
Prinivil
Indications

hypertension, management of CHF

Actions
block conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, increases renin levels and decreases aldosterone leading to vasodilation
Therapeutic Class
antihypertensives
Pharmacologic Class
ACE Inhibitor

Lithium (Lithizine)

Generic Name
Lithium
Trade Name
Lithizine
Indications
  • Mania
Actions
Alters cation transport and neurotransmitter reuptake
Therapeutic Class
Mood Stabilizer
Pharmacologic Class
none

Loperamide (Imodium) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Loperamide (Imodium) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
loperamide
Trade Name
Imodium
Indications

acute diarrhea, decrease drainage post ileostomy

Actions
inhibits peristalsis, reduces the volume of feces while increasing the bulk and viscosity
Therapeutic Class
antidiarrheal
Pharmacologic Class

Lorazepam (Ativan) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Lorazepam (Ativan) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
lorazepam
Trade Name
Ativan
Indications

anxiety, sedation, seizures

Actions
general CNS depression by potentiating inhibitory neurotransmitters
Therapeutic Class
anesthetic adjuncts, antianxiety agents, sedative hypnotics
Pharmacologic Class
Benzodiazepine

Losartan (Cozaar) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Losartan (Cozaar) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
losartan
Trade Name
Cozaar
Indications

hypertension, DM neuropathy, CHF

Actions
inhibits vasoconstrictive properties of angiotensin II
Therapeutic Class
antihypertensives
Pharmacologic Class
angiotensin II receptor antagonist

Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4)

Generic Name
Magnesium sulfate
Trade Name
MgSO4
Indications
  • Treatment of hypomagnesaemia
  • Hypertension
  • Preterm labor
  • Torsade de pointes
  • Asthma
  • Anticonvulsant with eclampsia
Actions
Magnesium plays a role in muscle excitability
Therapeutic Class
Mineral and electrolyte replacements/supplements
Pharmacologic Class
Minerals/electrolytes

Mannitol (Osmitrol) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Mannitol (Osmitrol) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
mannitol
Trade Name
Osmitrol
Indications

increased ICP, oliguric renal failure, edema, intraocular pressure

Actions
inhibits reabsorption of water and electrolytes by increasing osmotic pressure, excreted by kidneys
Therapeutic Class
diuretic
Pharmacologic Class
osmotic diuretic

Meperidine (Demerol) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Meperidine (Demerol) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
meperidine
Trade Name
Demerol
Indications

moderate to severe pain, sedation

Actions
Binds to opiate receptors in the CNS and alters perception of pain while producing a general depression of the CNS.
Therapeutic Class
Opioid Analgesic
Pharmacologic Class
opioid agonists

Meperidine: Demerol (Opioid Analgesic)

Generic Name
meperidine
Trade Name
Demerol
Indications

moderate to severe pain, sedation

Actions
Binds to opiate receptors in the CNS and alters perception of pain while producing a general depression of the CNS.
Therapeutic Class
Opioid Analgesic
Pharmacologic Class
opioid agonists

Metformin (Glucophage) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Metformin (Glucophage) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
metformin
Trade Name
Glucophage
Indications

management of Type II DM, PCOS

Actions
decreases glucose production in the liver, decreases absorption, increases cellular insulin sensitivity
Therapeutic Class
Antidiabetic
Pharmacologic Class
Biguanide

Methadone (Mathadose) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Methadone (Mathadose) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
methadone
Trade Name
Mathadose
Indications

withdrawal symptoms, pain

Actions
Suppresses withdrawal symptoms. Binds to opiate receptors in the CNS and alters perception of pain while producing a general depression of the CNS. This depression also causes a decrease in the cough reflex and GI motility.
Therapeutic Class
opioid analgesic
Pharmacologic Class
opioid agonist

Methylergonovine (Methergine) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Methylergonovine (Methergine) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
methylergonovine
Trade Name
Methergine
Indications

treatment of post-partum hemorrhage

Actions
stimulates uterine muscles causing uterine contraction
Therapeutic Class
oxytocic
Pharmacologic Class
ergot alkaloids

Methylphenidate (Ritalin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Methylphenidate (Ritalin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
methylphenidate
Trade Name
Ritalin
Indications

ADHD, narcolepsy

Actions
improves attention span in ADHD by producing CNS stimulation
Therapeutic Class
central nervous system stimulant
Pharmacologic Class
none

Methylprednisone (Solu-medrol) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Methylprednisone (Solu-medrol) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
methylprednisone
Trade Name
Solu-medrol
Indications

Inflammation, allergy, autoimmune disorders, prevent organ rejection

Actions
Suppress inflammation and normal immune response. The adrenal glands excrete steroid hormones that play a role in increasing blood sugars, immune suppression, and metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates, as well as decreasing bone formation.
Therapeutic Class
antiasthmatics, corticosteroids
Pharmacologic Class
corticosteroids

Methylprednisone: Solu-medrol (antiasthmatics, corticosteroids)

Generic Name
methylprednisone
Trade Name
Solu-medrol
Indications

Inflammation, allergy, autoimmune disorders, prevent organ rejection

Actions
Suppress inflammation and normal immune response. The adrenal glands excrete steroid hormones that play a role in increasing blood sugars, immune suppression, and metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates, as well as decreasing bone formation.
Therapeutic Class
antiasthmatics, corticosteroids
Pharmacologic Class
corticosteroids

Metoclopramide (Reglan) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Metoclopramide (Reglan) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
metoclopramide
Trade Name
Reglan
Indications

prevention of nausea, vomiting, hiccups, migraines, gastric stasis

Actions
accelerates gastric emptying by stimulating motility
Therapeutic Class
antiemetic
Pharmacologic Class
none

Metoprolol (Lopressor) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Metoprolol (Lopressor) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
metoprolol
Trade Name
Lopressor
Indications

tachyarrhythmias, HTN, angina, prevention of MI, heart failure management, may be used for migraine
prophylaxis

Actions
blocks the stimulation of beta1 receptors in the SNS, does not usually effect on beta2 receptors
(cardioselective)
Therapeutic Class
antianginal, antihypertensive
Pharmacologic Class
beta blocker

Metronidazole (Flagy) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Metronidazole (Flagy) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
metronidazole
Trade Name
Flagyl
Indications

intra-abdominal infections, gynecoligical infections, skin infections, bone and joint infections, CNS
infections, septicemia, endocarditis, amebic liver abscess, peptic ulcer disease

Actions
Inhibits DNA and protein synthesis in bacteria, bactericidal
Therapeutic Class
anti-infectives, antiprotozoals, antiulcer agents
Pharmacologic Class
none

Midazolam (Versed)

Generic Name
Midazolam
Trade Name
Versed
Indications
  • Sedation
  • Conscious sedation
  • Anesthesia
  • Status epilepticus
Actions
Acts to produce CNS depression, may be mediated by GABA.
Therapeutic Class
Antianxiety agent, sedative/hypnotics
Pharmacologic Class
Benzodiazepine

Montelukast (Singulair) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Montelukast (Singulair) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
montelukast
Trade Name
Singulair
Indications

prevent or treat asthma, manage seasonal allergies, prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

Actions
disrupts the effects of leukotrienes which effect airway edema, smooth muscle constriction, and cellular
activity
Therapeutic Class
allergy, cold, and cough remedies, bronchodilators
Pharmacologic Class
Leukotriene Antagonist

Morphine (MS Contin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Morphine (MS Contin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
morphine
Trade Name
MS Contin
Indications

pain, pulmonary edema, MI

Actions
Binds to opiate receptors in the CNS and alters perception of pain while producing a general depression of the CNS.
Therapeutic Class
opioid analgesic
Pharmacologic Class
opioid agonist

Nalbuphine (Nubain) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Nalbuphine (Nubain) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
nalbuphine
Trade Name
Nubain
Indications

pain, analgesia during labor, sedation before surgery, supplement to balance anesthesia

Actions
alters perception and response to pain, causes CNS depression
Therapeutic Class
Opioid Analgesic
Pharmacologic Class
opioid agonists/analgesics

Naproxen (Aleve) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Naproxen (Aleve) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
naproxen
Trade Name
Aleve
Indications

pain, dysmenorrhea, fever, inflammation

Actions
inhibits prostaglandin synthesis
Therapeutic Class
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, nonopioid analgesics, antipyretics
Pharmacologic Class
none

Nifedipine (Procardia) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Nifedipine (Procardia) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
nifedipine
Trade Name
Procardia
Indications

hypertension, angina, migraines, CHF

Actions
blocks calcium transport resulting in inhibition of contraction causing systemic vasodilatation
Therapeutic Class
antianginals, antihypertensives
Pharmacologic Class
Ca Channel Blocker

Nitroprusside (Nitropress) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Nitroprusside (Nitropress) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
nitroprusside
Trade Name
Nitropress
Indications

hypertensive crisis, cardiogenic shock

Actions
peripheral vasodilation of arteries and veins decreasing preload and afterload
Therapeutic Class
antihypertensive
Pharmacologic Class
vasodilator

Norepinephrine (Levophed)

Generic Name
Norepinephrine
Trade Name
Levophed
Indications

Treatment of severe hypotension and shock

Actions
Increase blood pressure and cardiac output by stimulating alpha-adrenergic receptors in the blood vessels, demonstrates minor beta activity
Therapeutic Class
Vasopressor
Pharmacologic Class

NPH (Humulin N, Novolin N )

Generic Name
NPH
Trade Name
Humulin N, Novolin N
Indications
  • Hyperglycemia with diabetes type 1 and 2
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
Actions
Stimulates uptake of glucose into muscle and fat cells, inhibits production of glucose in the liver, prevents breakdown of fat and protein

Route Onset Peak Duration
Subcutaneous 1-2 hr 4-12hr 18-24hr
Therapeutic Class
Antidiabetics, hormones
Pharmacologic Class
Pancreatics

NPH Insulin: Humulin N, Novolin N (antidiabetics, hormones)

NPH Insulin: Humulin N, Novolin N (antidiabetics, hormones)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

NRSNG Isn’t Mine . . . It’s OURS!

Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Nystatin (Mycostatin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Nystatin (Mycostatin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
nystatin
Trade Name
Mycostatin
Indications

candidiasis, denture stomatitis

Actions
causes leakage of fungal cell contents
Therapeutic Class
Antifungal
Pharmacologic Class
none

Olanzapine (Zyprexa )

Generic Name
Olanzapine
Trade Name
Zyprexa
Indications
  • Schizophrenia, mania
  • Depression
  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy
Actions
Antagonizes dopamine and serotonin
Therapeutic Class
Antipsychotic, mood stabilizers
Pharmacologic Class
Thienobenzodiazepines

Omeprazole (Prilosec) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Omeprazole (Prilosec) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
omeprazole
Trade Name
Prilosec
Indications

GERD, ulcers, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, reduce the risk of GI bleed in critically ill patients, heart burn

Actions
prevents the transport of H ions into the gastric lumen by binding to gastric parietal cells, ↓ gastric acid production
Therapeutic Class
antiulcer agent
Pharmacologic Class
proton-pump inhibitor

Ondansetron (Zofran)

Generic Name
Ondansetron
Trade Name
Zofran
Indications
  • Nausea/vomiting
Actions
Blocks effects of serotonin on vagal nerve and CNS
Therapeutic Class
Antiemetic
Pharmacologic Class
5-HT3 antagonist

Oxycodone (Oxycontin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Oxycodone (Oxycontin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
oxycodone
Trade Name
Oxycontin
Indications

pain

Actions
binds to opiate receptors in CNS altering the perception and sensation of pain
Therapeutic Class
Opioid Analgesic
Pharmacologic Class
opioid agonists, opioid agonists/nonopioid, analgesic combinations

Oxytocin (Pitocin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Oxytocin (Pitocin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
oxytocin
Trade Name
Pitocin
Indications

labor induction, postpartum bleeding

Actions
stimulates uterine smooth muscle
Therapeutic Class
hormones
Pharmacologic Class
oxytocics

Pancrelipase (Creon) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Pancrelipase (Creon) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
pancrelipase
Trade Name
Creon
Indications

pancreatic insufficiency, ductal obstruction

Actions
replacement of pancreatic enzymes: lipase, amylase, protease
Therapeutic Class
digestive agent
Pharmacologic Class
pancreatic enzyme

Pantoprazole (Protonix )

Generic Name
Pantoprazole
Trade Name
Protonix
Indications
  • GERD
  • Heartburn
  • Reduce the risk of GI bleed in critically ill patients
Actions
Prevents the transport of H ions into the gastric lumen by binding to gastric parietal cells, ↓ gastric acid production
Therapeutic Class
Antiulcer agents
Pharmacologic Class
Proton-pump inhibitors

Paroxetine (Paxil) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Paroxetine (Paxil) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
paroxetine
Trade Name
Paxil
Indications

major depressive disorder, OCD, anxiety, PTSD

Actions
block reuptake of serotonin in CNS
Therapeutic Class
antianxiety agent, antidepressant
Pharmacologic Class
SSRI

Pepto Bismol

Phenazopyridine (Pyridium) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Phenazopyridine (Pyridium) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
phenazopyridine
Trade Name
Pyridium
Indications

urological pain

Actions
provides analgesia to the urinary tract mucosa
Therapeutic Class
nonopioid analgesics
Pharmacologic Class
urinary tract analgesics

Phenytoin (Dilantin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Phenytoin (Dilantin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
phenytoin
Trade Name
Dilantin
Indications

tonic clonic seizures, arrhythmias, neuropathic pain

Actions
interferes with ion transport, shortens action potentials and decreases automaticity blocks sustained
high frequency repetitive firing of action potentials.
Therapeutic Class
antiarrhythmics, anticonvulsants
Pharmacologic Class
hydantoins

Procainamide Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Procainamide Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
procainamide
Trade Name
Indications

wide variety ventricular and atrial arrhythmias, PAC, PVC, VTach, post cardioversion

Actions
decreases excitability and slows conduction velocity through the heart
Therapeutic Class
antiarrhythmic (Class IA Na Channel Blocker)
Pharmacologic Class

Promethazine (Promethacon) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Promethazine (Promethacon) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
promethazine
Trade Name
Promethacon
Indications

allergic reactions, nausea and vomiting, sedation

Actions
Blocks the effects of histamine, histamine plays a role in the immune response. Plays an inhibitory role
on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the medulla leading to an antiemetic effect. Possess
anticholinergic properties producing CNS depression.
Therapeutic Class
antiemetic, antihistamine, sedative/hypnotic
Pharmacologic Class
phenothiazine

Propofol (Diprivan) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Propofol (Diprivan) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
propofol
Trade Name
Diprivan
Indications

anesthesia, induction, sedation,

Actions
hypnotic, produces amnesia with no analgesic properties
Therapeutic Class
general anesthetic
Pharmacologic Class
none

Propranolol (Inderal) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Propranolol (Inderal) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
propranolo
Trade Name
Inderal
Indications

hypertension, angina, arrythmias, cardiomyopathy, alcohol withdrawal, anxiety

Actions
blocks Beta 1 and 2 adrenergic receptors
Therapeutic Class
antianginal, antiarrhythimic (class II beta blockers), antihypertensive, headache suppressant
Pharmacologic Class
beta blocker

Propylthiouracil (PTU) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Propylthiouracil (PTU) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
propylthiouracil
Trade Name
PTU
Indications

hyperthyroidism

Actions
inhibits thyroid hormones
Therapeutic Class
Antithyroid Agent
Pharmacologic Class
none

Quetiapine (Seroquel) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Quetiapine (Seroquel) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
quetiapine
Trade Name
Seroquel
Indications

schizophrenia, depressive disorder, mania

Actions
dopamine and serotonin antagonist
Therapeutic Class
antipsychotic, mood stabilizers
Pharmacologic Class
none

Radioactive iodine (Antithyroid Agent, control of hyperthyroidism)

Radioactive iodine (Antithyroid Agent, control of hyperthyroidism)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Radioactive iodine Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Radioactive iodine Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
radioactive iodine
Trade Name
none
Indications

thyroidectomy pretreatment, thyrotoxic crisis, radiation exposure

Actions
inhibits the release of thyroid hormones
Therapeutic Class
Antithyroid Agent, control of hyperthyroidism
Pharmacologic Class
none

Ranitidine (Zantac )

Generic Name
Ranitidine
Trade Name
Zantac
Indications
  • Duodenal ulcers, GERD
  • Heartburn
  • Esophagitis
  • GI bleed
Actions
Inhibits action of histamine in gastric parietal cells, decreases gastric acid secretion
Therapeutic Class
Antiulcer agents
Pharmacologic Class
Histamine H2 antagonists

Regular (Humulin R/Novolin R)

Generic Name
Regular
Trade Name
Humulin R/Novolin R
Indications

Hyperglycemia with diabetes type 1 and 2, diabetic ketoacidosis

Actions
Stimulates uptake of glucose into muscle and fat cells, inhibits production of glucose in the liver, prevents breakdown of fat and protein
Therapeutic Class
Antidiabetics, hormones
Pharmacologic Class
Pancreatics

Regular Insulin (short acting): Humulin R/Novolin R (antidiabetics, hormones)

Regular Insulin (short acting): Humulin R/Novolin R (antidiabetics, hormones)
Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Rifampin (Rimactane) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Rifampin (Rimactane) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
rifampin
Trade Name
Rimactane
Indications

tuberculosis

Actions
inhibits RNA synthesis
Therapeutic Class
Antitubercular
Pharmacologic Class
rifamycins

Salmeterol (Serevent) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Salmeterol (Serevent) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
salmeterol
Trade Name
Serevent
Indications

reversible airway obstruction, exercise induced asthma

Actions
bronchodilation through stimulation of beta 2 adrenergic receptors
Therapeutic Class
bronchodilators
Pharmacologic Class
adrenergics

Sertraline (Zoloft) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Sertraline (Zoloft) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
sertraline
Trade Name
Zoloft
Indications

major depressive disorder, OCD, anxiety

Actions
inhibits uptake of serotonin allowing for higher quantities available within synaptic cleft
Therapeutic Class
Antidepressant
Pharmacologic Class
SSRI

Spironolactone (Aldactone)

Generic Name
Spironolactone
Trade Name
Aldactone
Indications
  • Potassium loss
  • Hypertension
  • Edema
  • CHF
Actions
Inhibits sodium reabsorption while sparing potassium and hydrogen
Therapeutic Class
Diuretics
Pharmacologic Class
Potassium sparing diuretics

Streptokinase (Streptase)

Generic Name
Streptokinase
Trade Name
Streptase
Indications
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • DVT
  • Occluded lines
  • Arterial thrombus
Actions
Converts plasminogen to plasmin which degrades fibrin clots
Therapeutic Class
Thrombolytic
Pharmacologic Class
Plasminogen activators

Sublimaze

Generic Name
Trade Name
Indications
Actions
Therapeutic Class
Pharmacologic Class

Sucralfate (Carafate) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Sucralfate (Carafate) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
sucralfate
Trade Name
Carafate
Indications

management of GI ulcers, GI injury prevention from high dose aspirin and NSAID treatment

Actions
reacts with gastric acid to form a paste that adheres to ulcer
Therapeutic Class
antiulcer agent
Pharmacologic Class
GI protectant

Terbutaline (Brethaire)

Generic Name
Terbutaline
Trade Name
Brethaire
Indications
  • Asthma
  • COPD
  • Preterm labor
Actions
Produces bronchodilation
Therapeutic Class
Bronchodilators
Pharmacologic Class
Adrenergics

Tertbutaline (Brethaire) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Tertbutaline (Brethaire) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
terbutaline
Trade Name
Brethaire
Indications

asthma, COPD, preterm labor

Actions
produces bronchodilation and inhibits hypersensitivity reactions
Therapeutic Class
bronchodilators
Pharmacologic Class
adrenergics

Tetracycline (Doxycycline) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Tetracycline (Doxycycline) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
tetracycline
Trade Name
Doxycycline
Indications

treatment of infection, gonorrhea and syphilis with penicillin allergy, chronic bronchitis

Actions
bacteriostatic by inhibiting protein synthesis
Therapeutic Class
anti-infectives
Pharmacologic Class
Tetracyclines

Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim/TMP-SMZ)

Generic Name
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole
Trade Name
Bactrim/TMP-SMZ
Indications
  • Bronchitis
  • UTI
  • Diarrhea
  • Pneumonia
  • Multiple types of infection
Actions
Bacteriacidal by preventing metabolism of folic acid
Therapeutic Class
Anti-infectives, antiprotozoals
Pharmacologic Class
Folate antagonists, sulfonamides

Tylenol

Vancomycin (Vancocin )

Generic Name
Vancomycin
Trade Name
Vancocin
Indications
  • Life threatening infections
  • Sepsis
Actions
Bactericidal
Therapeutic Class
Anti-infectives
Pharmacologic Class
none

Vasopressin (Pitressin)

Generic Name
Vasopressin
Trade Name
Pitressin
Indications
  • Management of diabetes insipidus
  • VT/VF unresponsive to initial shock
  • GI hemorrhage
Actions
Increases water permeability of the kidney’s collecting duct and distal convoluted tubule leading to water retention, also increases peripheral vascular resistance leading to increased BP
Therapeutic Class
Hormone
Pharmacologic Class
Antidiuretic hormone

Verapamil (Isoptin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Verapamil (Isoptin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
verapamil
Trade Name
Isoptin
Indications

hypertension, angina, SVT, migraine

Actions
prevents transport of calcium, leading to decreased contraction, decreases SA and AV node conduction
Therapeutic Class
antianginals, antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive, vascular headache suppressants
Pharmacologic Class
Ca Channel Blocker

Warfarin (Coumadin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations

Warfarin (Coumadin) Nursing Pharmacology Considerations
Generic Name
warfarin
Trade Name
Coumadin
Indications

venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, A-fib, myocardial infarction

Actions
disrupts liver synthesis of Vitamin K dependent clotting factors
Therapeutic Class
Anticoagulant
Pharmacologic Class
coumarins